Олександра Джорджевич, Віктор Мелешко, Владлен Самошкін: Oснови спортивної нутріціології
Oснови спортивної нутріціології
Олександра Джорджевич, Віктор Мелешко, Владлен Самошкін
Objective. To systematize modern science information about effectiveness of the use macro- and micronutrients in sports food by athlets according to the principles of the Consensus of the International Olympic Committee on the use of dietary supplements in sport of higher achievements.
Methods. The method of theoretical analysis which is based on the generalization, synthesis, extrapolation and analysis of data problems in modern from scientific and methodological literature, network Internet and normative documents on this issue; the systematic approach.
Results. This scientific work tells about effectiveness of the use dietary supplements in sport of higher achievements, principles of the new independent science – nutritionology of sport and about using macro- and micronutrients by athletes in sports food.
Conclusions. In March 2018, the Consensus of the International Olympic Committee on the use of dietary supplements in sport of higher achievements was presented to the sports and medical community. The Consensus is the expert conclusion and recommendations of the leading sports nutritionists and specialists in the field of sports medicine, which are based on a detailed analysis of the latest achievements of sport science. It should become a regulatory document and a guide to the action for a sports nutritionist and a sports doctor at the same time.
Nutritionology of sport is relatively synthetic, but very actively progressing in recent years, an independent direction of clinical and experimental pharmacology and dietology, in relation to the present moment, was formed in a separate science. The strategy of the nutritional and metabolic support for the athletes is based on the principle of «gradual but steady formation of directed metabolic changes in the body that improve the physical form of a man.» According to the publications of the results of the scientific researches, there is a clear tendency towards the convergence of the means of the nutritional and metabolic support and medicinal products.
Experimental and clinical studies have shown that regular moderate physical activity increases the specific composition of human intestinal microbial by type so-called alpha-diversifications. The microbial component accounts for about 1,5 – 2 kg of body weight. The feces’ analysis revealed the presence of 22 types of microorganisms in the cysts of the athletes as compared to 11 and 9 types of microbes in the group of ordinary people with high and low body index, respectively optimizing the composition of the intestines of the microbiome with the help of pre-, pro- and synbiotics is a strategy for improving the physical form and general health of athletes.
It is proved that general provisions on use, requirements and comparative characteristics of the main types, kinetics of the release, effectiveness of the use in different species, impact on immunity a physical activity, interaction with the microbiome of the intestine, conclusion on the effectiveness of the dietary supplements for physical activity for the main macro- and micronutrients of sports food (proteins, peptides, individual amino acids and their ketanalogs, facts and fatty acids, carbohydrates, micronutrients, water-electrolyte balance and its regulation in the physical loadings).
Keywords. Consensus of the International Olympic Committee, dietary supplements, Athletic Nutritionology.
В роботі з позиції принципів Консенсусу МОК відносно застосування дієтичних добавок в спорті вищих досягнень і положень спортивної нутріціології систематизована сучасна наукова інформація про ефективне використання атлетами макро- і мікронутрієнтів в спортивному харчуванні.
Ключові слова: Консенсус МОК, дієтичні добавки, спортивна нутріціологія.